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Infeitsyan was forbidden, which led to the disorder of money circulation and its general crisis. For these reasons, it was wide-spread not only in ancient Greece, but also throughout Roman Empire, where it was called foenUS naiiticum and the borrowed swra-pecuTiia traectiUcP.

Rostovtsev’s stance is fundamentally different. They were private establishments, which sharply competed with each other. If the subject is the history of the weksel formation according to the European economic tradition, then the object is the history of credit documents of different wwkslowy and cultures, similar to the weksel by their economic fiinctions.

Ä Ä™Ä‡Å›Å„ÅºÅ¼Ã³Å‚ zmienia aaa aaron aar aaltonen aabye – Reptar

The debtor had no right to refuse payment, because he could lose a fiirther credit— the utter ruin for the majority of Babylon’s inhabitants. Aristophanes’ works bear witness to it, mentioning many commercial occupations and also money changers, or trapezits. Commission for Banking Supervision 2. This explains why the author has used the concept of Weksel as a generic name for this financial instrument which is absent in the English language.

At the same time, the German authors C. Sometimes it was not easy to get the debt repaid in Babylon, as the creditor had no rights to the debtor’s freedom and could collect only the pledge. The contrary argument may be the feet that the Hans German merchants carried out substantial trade -commercial operations almost simultaneously with Italian merchants.

Syukiyajnen believes that the medieval European law was greatly influenced by the Islamic law, whence the weksel institution was borrowed. This theory was also supported by Max Neumann, who did not try to prove that the weksel originated in Germany, but rather defended the idea that the weksel independently without any foreign influence appeared simultaneously in different countries including in Italy, Germany, and in Sweden due to objective economic preconditions, proceeding from the research of the records 94 of credit agreements of the Hans merchants’.

Barats thought that the weksel institution did not exist in the Roman state, despite a comprehensive legal regulation of its public life.


Słownik polsko-angielski terminologii prawniczej | Zostań prawnikiem

Gradually, the issue of tszyaotszy credit documents became the main function of guifans, called tszyaotszy pu— “tszyaotszy shops” in the Sichuan province. Although the usury problem worried the Muslim world, all Islamic culture, unlike the Christian one, had a commercial character.

Finley, the most authoritative representative of this approach, emphasizes that it is impossible to understand in principle the ancient economy on the basis of modem economic categories.

Weber, in each place where money was required, there immediately appeared persons eager to lend money. There are arguments supporting Ch. Glankiet, pay to Epiteuks five hundred drachmas in copper.

Considering the above mentioned different authors’ views on the classification of the periods of weksel operations, the following period classification is optimal: The tszyaotszy distribution altered the very mechanism of receiving profits by guifans. In ancient Greece, credit operations were conducted by trapezits, often mentioned in the speeches, attributed to Blaniket.

Bogaert concluded that this credit was consumer and not industrial he did not agree on this issue with V.

Baghdad— one of the largest and richest cities of the world of that time became the center of this extensive network. State Treasury spadkobierca w linii prostej: The following is a sample of such a record during Abi-Esuha tsar’s reign B. Weksllowy also mentions hudu, calling them circulating bank notes. Two merchants who lived in Athens— Khrissip with his brother and Formion— were going to send a ship for the purchase of goods.

Quite often, trade development, wealth, and a variety of trade companies of Rome served the basis for drawing a parallel between the ancient Roman economy and the economy of capitalism. First, it is necessary to state some reasons concerning the approaches to studying the ancient economy as a whole.

Only a detailed comparative research of the legal nature of ancient Roman payment orders and weksel obligations allows blankief the assumption that the legal basis for each is entirely different”.

Słownik polsko-angielski terminologii prawniczej

Belyavsky incorrectly calls them wekselsNabu-ahhe-iddin offered half of the amount; to those who did not accept this proposal he refiised to pay at all. The quantity and volume of the Order of Knights Templars’ credit operations were the largest among other Orders Teutonic, Franciscan, Joanite.

In order to avoid usury prohibition law, the debt obligation was issued for the amount which exceeded an actually received sum. They were also utilized as depositary receipts and as travel letters of credit. Brute and Seneca are known to do the same in Britain. Professional usurers, or sarrafs, dealt with money operations money exchange and loan granting in the markets of the Muslim world cities.


Frequently, agreements were made without actual money transfer to the debtor. Fedorov noted that weksels were already used in ancient times, and there are no reasons 48 to believe that the weksel appeared only in Xll century in Italy.

Hino’s opinion, the government opposed the increased economic significance of the private association in the remote Sichuan province, which constantly strived for independence. However, the research logic assumes the classification of certain stages in the history of bill of exchange and promissory note operations, which is primarily required for the sequential presentation of material. It shall be considered a logical consequence of the development of trade-economic relations.

Thus legal instruments only vaguely resembling medieval European bills of exchange were available in ancient Greece in IV century B. After the Roman Empire collapsed, the antique civilization already ceased to exist and the European civilization arose.

At the end of XIX century to the beginning of the XX century, this theory was blannkiet frequently presented in the works of Russian authors. Feitsyan was also used during the Sun dynasty, though the weakened positions of the central authority considerably reduced the amount weksllwy peripheral taxes blankite respectively decreased the need for feitsyan.

There wekslwoy also liquidated registration books, in which money investors were recorded, and tszyaotszy holders were ordered to return them to the emitters and exchange them for metal money.

Ä Ä™Ä‡Å›Å„ÅºÅ¼Ã³Å‚ zmienia aaa aaron aar aaltonen aabye – Reptar – PDF Free Download

However, the bill of exchange originated from them for complex 53 reasons which appeared much later. Therefore, loans were fi”equently granted through figureheads, who took, the pledge, if required.

Any paper with the written text was careflilly stored and only destroyed in the case of absolute necessity. These prototypes of weksel obligations appeared as long ago as written debt commitments, used for simplifying commercial operations. As in the days of the Northern Sun dynasty, tszyaotszy were mainly used as depositary receipts; in the so-called guantszy were issued. The works which consider the weksel history from the legal aspect do not often take into account the socio-economic processes, without which it is impossible to understand the peculiarities of the evolution of such an integrated tool as a weksel.